DC Motor Types & Characteristics
In a series DC motor the field is connected in series with the armature. The field is wound with a few turns of large wire because it must carry the full armature current.
A characteristic of series motors is the motor develops a large amount of starting torque. However, speed varies widely between no load and full load. Series motors cannot be used where a constant speed is required under varying loads.
Additionally, the speed of a series motor with no load increases to the point where the motor can become damaged. Some load must always be connected to a series-connected motor.
Series-connected motors generally are not suitable for use on most variable speed drive applications.
Compound motors have a field connected in series with the armature and a separately excited shunt field. The series field provides better starting torque and the shunt field provides better speed regulation.
However the series field can cause control problems in variable speed drive applications and is generally not used in four quadrant drives.
In a shunt motor the field is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature windings. The shunt-connected motor offers good speed regulation. The field winding can be separately excited or connected to the same source as the armature.
An advantage to a separately excited shunt field is the ability of a variable speed drive to provide independent control of the armature and field.
The shunt-connected motor offers simplified control for reversing. This is especially beneficial in regenerative drives.